Breast implant-associated EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Two case reports and literature review
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Lymphomas associated with breast implants are mostly of the T-cell type. They are predominantly anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK-negative ALCL) characterized by CD30 positivity universally. Whilst the majority of primary breast lymphomas occurring in the absence of breast implants are of B-cell origin, there are few cases of implant-associated B-cell lymphomas reported to date in the literature, a subset of which are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Given the rarity of this entity, we describe two cases of breast implant-associated DLBCL. Both patients developed Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive large cell lymphoma of B-cell origin confined to the implant capsule with no evidence of systemic lymphoma. Considering the association with EBV, the activated B-cell phenotype and the presumed chronic inflammatory environment associated with the implant capsule, these might represent forms of DLBCL associated with chronic inflammation (DLBCL-CI) or fibrin-associated DLBCL (FA-DLBCL). Treatment included implant removal with total capsulectomy, and for one of the cases adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Recognizing this rare type of breast implant-associated B-cell lymphoma could improve our understanding of this entity and hence develop appropriate management strategies.