Improvement of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease and severe obesity after bariatric surgery: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
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The general management for chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes treating reversible causes, including obesity, which may be both a driver and comorbidity for CKD. Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce the likelihood of CKD progression and improve kidney function in observational studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of patients with at least stage 3 CKD and obesity receiving bariatric surgery. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, CENTRAL and identified eligible studies reporting on kidney function outcomes in included patients before and after bariatric surgery with comparison to a medical intervention control if available. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Risk of Bias score. Nineteen studies were included for synthesis. Bariatric surgery showed improved eGFR with a mean difference (MD) of 11.64 (95%CI: 5.84 to 17.45, I2 = 66%) ml/min/1.73m2 and reduced SCr with MD of -0.24 (95%CI -0.21 to -0.39, I2 = 0%) mg/dl after bariatric surgery. There was no significant difference in the relative risk (RR) of having CKD stage 3 after bariatric surgery, with a RR of -1.13 (95%CI: -0.83 to -2.07, I2 = 13%), but there was reduced likelihood of having uACR >30 mg/g or above with a RR of -3.03 (95%CI: -1.44 to -6.40, I2 = 91%). Bariatric surgery may be associated with improved kidney function with the reduction of BMI and may be a safe treatment option for patients with CKD. Future studies with more robust reporting are required to determine the feasibility of bariatric surgery for the treatment of CKD.
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