Risk Alleles in/near ADCY5, ADRA2A, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, GRB10, and TCF7L2 Elevate Plasma Glucose Levels at Birth and in Early Childhood: Results from the FAMILY Study
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BACKGROUND: Metabolic abnormalities that lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus begin in early childhood. OBJECTIVES: We investigate whether common genetic variants identified in adults have an effect on glucose in early life. METHODS: 610 newborns, 463 mothers, and 366 fathers were included in the present study. Plasma glucose and anthropometric characteristics were collected at birth, 3, and 5 years. After quality assessment, 37 SNPs, which have demonstrated an association with fasting plasma glucose at the genome-wide threshold in adults, were studied. Quantitative trait disequilibrium tests and mixed-effects regressions were conducted to estimate an effect of the SNPs on glucose. RESULTS: Risk alleles for 6 loci increased glucose levels from birth to 5 years of age (ADCY5, ADRA2A, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, GRB10, and TCF7L2, 4.85x10-3 ≤ P ≤ 4.60x10-2). Together, these 6 SNPs increase glucose by 0.05 mmol/L for each risk allele in a genotype score (P = 6.33x10-5). None of the associations described in the present study have been reported previously in early childhood. CONCLUSION: Our data support the notion that a subset of loci contributing to plasma glucose variation in adults has an effect at birth and in early life.
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