The Effect of Universal Influenza Immunization on Antibiotic Prescriptions: An Ecological Study Journal Articles uri icon

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  • The Canadian province of Ontario introduced universal influenza immunization in 2000, offering free vaccines to the entire population. We compared changes in rates of influenza-associated respiratory antibiotic prescriptions before and after universal immunization in Ontario with corresponding changes in other provinces. Universal influenza immunization is associated with reduced influenza-associated antibiotic prescriptions.


  • Kwong, Jeffrey C
  • Maaten, Sarah
  • Upshur, Ross
  • Patrick, David M
  • Marra, Fawziah

publication date

  • September 2009