N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a cardiac disease biomarker, has been demonstrated to be a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients without heart failure. Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at high risk of cardiovascular events and death. In this study, we investigated levels of NT-proBNP in patients with PAD compared to non-PAD controls. A total of 355 patients were recruited from outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital network. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were quantified using protein multiplex. There were 279 patients with both clinical and diagnostic features of PAD and 76 control patients without PAD (non-PAD cohort). Compared with non-PAD patients, median (IQR) NT-proBNP levels in PAD patients were significantly higher (225 ng/L (120–363)
vs285 ng/L (188–425), p- value = 0.001, respectively). Regression analysis demonstrated that NT-proBNP remained significantly higher in patients with PAD relative to non-PAD despite adjusting for age, sex, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and hypertension [odds ratio = 1.28 (1.07–1.54), p-value <0.05]. Subgroup analysis showed elevated NT-proBNP levels in patients with PAD regardless of prior history of CHF, CAD, diabetes and hypercholesteremia (p-value <0.05). Finally, spearmen’s correlation analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between NT-proBNP and ABI (ρ = -0.242; p-value < 0.001). In conclusion, our data shows that patients with PAD in an ambulatory care setting have elevated levels of NT-proBNP compared to non-PAD patients in the absence of cardiac symptoms.