Percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenal tumours: a systematic review
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AIM: To undertaken a systematic review of the technical success and technique efficacy rates of percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for adrenal tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies from inception to the third week of January 2020. Only studies reporting effectiveness rates of percutaneous RFA for adrenal tumours were included. Data regarding sample size, tumours, effectiveness rates, outcomes, and complications were extracted in duplicate and recorded. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies evaluating 292 individuals with 305 tumours were included. Patient selection criteria included age ≥18 years, contraindication to surgical intervention, and no uncorrected coagulopathy. Cumulative technical success, primary technique efficacy, and secondary technique efficacy rates were 99%, 95.1% and 100%, respectively, indicating optimal immediate control of adrenal tumours. Technical success and technique efficacy rates of primary adrenal tumours were higher than adrenal metastases; however, formal statistical analyses were precluded due to lack of comparative studies. Local tumour progression rates for adrenal metastases were 20.3% at 3 months, 26.3% at 6 months, and 29.3% at 12 months. Overall survival rates for adrenal metastases were 81.8% at 6 months, 59.6% at 12 months, and 62.9% at 18 months. The intraprocedural complication rate was 30.2%, with the most frequency reported complication being procedural hypertensive crisis. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest percutaneous image-guided RFA is a safe and efficacious procedure. Further studies are warranted to define patient selection criteria and long-term outcomes.
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