Genetic Determinants of Dabigatran Plasma Levels and Their Relation to Bleeding
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BACKGROUND: Fixed-dose unmonitored treatment with dabigatran etexilate is effective and has a favorable safety profile in the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients compared with warfarin. We hypothesized that genetic variants could contribute to interindividual variability in blood concentrations of the active metabolite of dabigatran etexilate and influence the safety and efficacy of dabigatran. METHODS AND RESULTS: We successfully conducted a genome-wide association study in 2944 Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) participants. The CES1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2244613 was associated with trough concentrations, and the ABCB1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4148738 and the CES1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs8192935 were associated with peak concentrations at genome-wide significance (P<9×10(-8)) with a gene-dose effect. Each minor allele of the CES1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2244613 was associated with lower trough concentrations (15% decrease per allele; 95% confidence interval, 10-19; P=1.2×10(-8)) and a lower risk of any bleeding (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.82; P=7×10(-5)) in dabigatran-treated participants, with a consistent but nonsignificant lower risk of major bleeding (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.01). The interaction between treatment (warfarin versus all dabigatran) and carrier status was statistically significant (P=0.002), with carriers having less bleeding with dabigatran than warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.76; P=5.2×10(-)5) in contrast to no difference in noncarriers (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.14; P=0.65). There was no association with ischemic events, and neither rs4148738 nor rs8192935 was associated with bleeding or ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS: Genome-wide association analysis identified that carriage of the CES1 rs2244613 minor allele occurred in 32.8% of patients in RE-LY and was associated with lower exposure to active dabigatran metabolite. The presence of the polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00262600.
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