Despite aggressive multimodal therapy, glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. With the advent of therapies that revitalize the anti-tumor immune response, several immunotherapeutic modalities have been developed for treatment of GBM. In this review, we summarize recent clinical and preclinical efforts to evaluate vaccination strategies, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Although these modalities have shown long-term tumor regression in subsets of treated patients, the underlying biology that may predict efficacy and inform therapy development is being actively investigated. Common to all therapeutic modalities are fundamental mechanisms of therapy evasion by tumor cells, including immense intratumoral heterogeneity, suppression of the tumor immune microenvironment and low mutational burden. These insights have led efforts to design rational combinatorial therapies that can reignite the anti-tumor immune response, effectively and specifically target tumor cells and reliably decrease tumor burden for GBM patients.