Barriers to Referral for Cytoreduction and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Identified Using a Tailoring Grid Methodology: Interviews with Stakeholders in New York State
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INTRODUCTION: Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS/HIPEC) has variable uptake, with referrals reliant on other physicians. To characterize barriers to referral for CS/HIPEC, we created a pragmatic "tailoring grid", incorporating the concepts of Pathman's 4 As of awareness, agreement, adoption, and adherence and barriers acting at the individual, practice group, and organization level. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We invited surgeons and medical oncologists from Western New York State who potentially refer patients for CS/HIPEC to participate in tailoring grid interviews. RESULTS: Interviews of 10 surgeons and 10 medical oncologists were completed. The participants were positioned in the Pathman 4 A's with respect to referrals for CS/HIPEC as follows: (1) A 19 aware (1 not aware); (2) A 3 in agreement (17 not in agreement); (3) A 9 adopters; and (4) A 6 adherent. Among the 9 participants who had referred at least one patient for CS/HIPEC (adopters/adherent), only 2 were in agreement with the appropriateness of CS/HIPEC. Barriers to awareness of included lack of interaction with colleagues and knowledge of indications. Barriers to agreement included lack of high quality of evidence supporting CS/HIPEC such as well-designed RCTs. Barriers to adoption included lack of communication with CS/HIPEC surgeons; lack of inclusion of the procedure into algorithms and defined morbidity/mortality rates. Barriers to adherence included lack of inclusion into guidelines by major societies; perceptions that the procedure is resource-intensive; lack of defined quality measures. CONCLUSIONS: The tailoring grid efficiently identified barriers to awareness, agreement, adoption and adherence for routine referral for CS/HIPEC. Barriers to increased referrals included lack of high-quality evidence supporting CS/HIPEC. Barriers more easily addressed included communication between referring and CS/HIPEC surgeons, and outcomes at the individual patient and hospital level.
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