Population growth and competition models with decay and competition consistent delay
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We derive an alternative expression for a delayed logistic equation in which the rate of change in the population involves a growth rate that depends on the population density during an earlier time period. In our formulation, the delay in the growth term is consistent with the rate of instantaneous decline in the population given by the model. Our formulation is a modification of Arino et al. (J Theor Biol 241(1):109-119, 2006) by taking the intraspecific competition between the adults and juveniles into account. We provide a complete global analysis showing that no sustained oscillations are possible. A threshold giving the interface between extinction and survival is determined in terms of the parameters in the model. The theory of chain transitive sets and the comparison theorem for cooperative delay differential equations are used to determine the global dynamics of the model. We extend our delayed logistic equation to a system modeling the competition between two species. For the competition model, we provide results on local stability, bifurcation diagrams, and adaptive dynamics. Assuming that the species with shorter delay produces fewer offspring at a time than the species with longer delay, we show that there is a critical value, [Formula: see text], such that the evolutionary trend is for the delay to approach [Formula: see text].
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