- Acute aerobic exercise performed prior to training may assist with motor skill acquisition through enhancement of motor cortical plasticity. In addition, high-intensity exercise performed after training improves retention, although the mechanisms of this are unclear. We hypothesized that acute continuous moderate-intensity exercise performed post-motor training would also assist with motor skill retention and that this behavioral change would be positively correlated with neural markers of training-related cortical adaptation. Participants [n = 33; assigned to an exercise (EXE) or control (CON) group] completed a single visuomotor training session using bilateral wrist movements while movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) were collected. After motor training, the EXE group exercised for 20 min [70% of heart rate reserve (HRR)] and the CON group read for the same amount of time. Both groups completed two post-training tests after exercise/rest: 10 min and ~ 30 min once heart rate returned to resting level in EXE. Retention and transfer tests were both completed 1 and 7 days later. MRCPs measured training-related neural adaptations during the first visit and motor performance was assessed as time and trajectory to the target. The EXE group had better performance than CON at retention (significant 7 days post-training). MRCP amplitudes increased from early to late motor training and this amplitude change was correlated with motor performance at retention. Results suggest that moderate-intensity exercise post-motor training helps motor skill retention and that there may be a relationship with motor training-related cortical adaptations that is enhanced with post-motor training exercise.