In-Stent CTO Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
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OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to examine the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) chronic total occlusions (CTOs). BACKGROUND: The outcomes of PCI for ISR CTOs have received limited study. METHODS: The authors examined the clinical and angiographic characteristics and procedural outcomes of 11,961 CTO PCIs performed in 11,728 patients at 107 centers in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Asia between 2012 and 2020, pooling patient-level data from 4 multicenter registries. In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) included death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and tamponade. Long-term MACE were defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. RESULTS: ISR represented 15% of the CTOs (n = 1,755). Patients with ISR CTOs had higher prevalence of diabetes (44% vs. 38%; p < 0.0001) and prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (27% vs. 24%; p = 0.03). Mean J-CTO (Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan) score was 2.32 ± 1.27 in the ISR group and 2.22 ± 1.27 in the de novo group (p = 0.01). Technical (85% vs. 85%; p = 0.75) and procedural (84% vs. 84%; p = 0.82) success was similar for ISR and de novo CTOs, as was the incidence of in-hospital MACE (1.7% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.25). Antegrade wiring was the most common successful strategy, in 70% of ISR and 60% of de novo CTOs, followed by retrograde crossing (16% vs. 23%) and antegrade dissection and re-entry (15% vs. 16%; p < 0.0001). At 12 months, patients with ISR CTOs had a higher incidence of MACE (hazard ratio: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: ISR CTOs represent 15% of all CTO PCIs and can be recanalized with similar success and in-hospital MACE as de novo CTOs.
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