Association of short- and long-latency afferent inhibition with human behavior
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with nerve stimulation evokes short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI), which are non-invasive assessments of the excitability of the sensorimotor system. SAI and LAI are abnormally reduced in various special populations in comparison to healthy controls. However, the relationship between afferent inhibition and human behavior remains unclear. The purpose of this review is to survey the current literature and synthesize observations and patterns that affect the interpretation of SAI and LAI in the context of human behavior. We discuss human behaviour across the motor and cognitive domains, and in special and control populations. Further, we discuss future considerations for research in this field and the potential for clinical applications. By understanding how human behavior is mediated by changes in SAI and LAI, this can allow us to better understand the neurophysiological underpinnings of human motor control.
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