In vivo analysis of a proprietary glass-based adhesive for sternal fixation and stabilization using rabbit and sheep models Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractWire cerclage remains the standard method of care for sternal fixation, following median sternotomy, despite being beset with complications. An emerging treatment option has been to augment the wires with an adhesive. A patented ionomeric glass (mole fraction: SiO2:0.48, ZnO:0.36, CaO:0.12, SrO:0.04) has been used to formulate GPC+, a glass polyalkenoate cement (GPC), by mixing it with poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) and de-ionized water. In a human cadaver study, this material, when applied with wire cerclage, was able to significantly reduce sternal instability. However, the material has yet to be tested in pertinent animal models. Here, after a series of physical and mechanical tests to confirm suitability of the experimental material for implantation, three samples of GPC+ were implanted in either the tibia or femur of three different rabbits, alongside sham defects, for two different time modalities. A further seven samples of GPC+ and one poly(methyl methacrylate) control (PMMA) were implanted in either the tibia or femur of two different sheep. The sheep containing the PMMA was sacrificed at 8 weeks and the other at 16 weeks, to evaluate time dependent biological response. Upon sacrifice, microCT images were acquired and histology slides prepared for analysis. All three GPC+ samples implanted in the rabbit model, for the two time modalities, were characterized by minimal bone resorption along with a mild inflammatory response. Five of the seven GPC+ materials implanted in the sheep model (all three implanted for 8 weeks and two of those implanted for 16 weeks) were associated with mild to moderate immune response, comparable to that observed with PMMA, as well as mild bone resorption. The remaining two GPC + materials (implanted in the sheep model for 16 weeks) exhibited no bone resorption or inflammatory response and appeared to stimulate increased bone density at the implant site. These results suggest that GPC + can be a viable bone adhesive for use in hard tissue applications such as sternal fixation and stabilization.


  • Mehrvar, Cina
  • Deignan, Emily
  • Hurtig, Mark
  • Cohen, Gideon
  • Zalzal, Paul
  • Safir, Oleg
  • Alhalawani, Adel
  • Papini, Marcello
  • Towler, Mark R

publication date

  • May 2021