Derivation and validation of a two‐variable index to predict 30‐day outcomes following heart failure hospitalization Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractBackgroundThe LACE index—length of stay (L), acuity (A), Charlson co‐morbidities (C), and emergent visits (E)—predicts 30‐day outcomes following heart failure (HF) hospitalization but is complex to score. A simpler LE index (length of stay and emergent visits) could offer a practical advantage in point‐of‐care risk prediction.Methods and resultsThis was a sub‐study of the patient‐centred care transitions in HF (PACT‐HF) multicentre trial. The derivation cohort comprised patients hospitalized for HF, enrolled in the trial, and followed prospectively. External validation was performed retrospectively in a cohort of patients hospitalized for HF. We used log‐binomial regression models with LACE or LE as the predictor and either 30‐day composite all‐cause readmission or death or 30‐day all‐cause readmission as the outcomes, adjusting only for post‐discharge services. There were 1985 patients (mean [SD] age 78.1 [12.1] years) in the derivation cohort and 378 (mean [SD] age 73.1 [13.2] years) in the validation cohort. Increments in the LACE and LE indices were associated with 17% (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12, 1.21; C‐statistic 0.64) and 21% (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15, 1.26; C‐statistic 0.63) increases, respectively, in 30‐day composite all‐cause readmission or death; and 16% (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.11, 1.20; C‐statistic 0.64) and 18% (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.13, 1.24; C‐statistic 0.62) increases, respectively, in 30‐day all‐cause readmission. The LE index provided better risk discrimination for the 30‐day outcomes than did the LACE index in the external validation cohort.ConclusionsThe LE index predicts 30‐day outcomes following HF hospitalization with similar or better performance than the more complex LACE index.


  • Averbuch, Tauben
  • Lee, Shun Fu
  • Mamas, Mamas Andreas
  • Oz, Urun Erbas
  • Perez, Richard
  • Connolly, Stuart James
  • Ko, Dennis Tien‐Wei
  • Van Spall, Harriette

publication date

  • August 2021