Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) play many roles including defense against pathogens, pests, and herbivores; response to environmental stresses, and mediating organismal interactions. Similarly, plant microbiomes participate in many of the above-mentioned processes directly or indirectly by regulating plant metabolism. Studies have shown that plants can influence their microbiome by secreting various metabolites and, in turn, the microbiome may also impact the metabolome of the host plant. However, not much is known about the communications between the interacting partners to impact their phenotypic changes. In this article, we review the patterns and potential underlying mechanisms of interactions between PSMs and plant microbiomes. We describe the recent developments in analytical approaches and methods in this field. The applications of these new methods and approaches have increased our understanding of the relationships between PSMs and plant microbiomes. Though the current studies have primarily focused on model organisms, the methods and results obtained so far should help future studies of agriculturally important plants and facilitate the development of methods to manipulate PSMs–microbiome interactions with predictive outcomes for sustainable crop productions.