The frequency of interleukin‐1β‐producing monocytes is significantly associated with varicella‐zoster responses of nursing home residents
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Previous studies have demonstrated that the status of the T cell compartment and inflammation-related factors are associated with the immunogenicity of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine in older adults; however, little is known about the roles of other immune cell subsets known to influence the generation and maintenance of immunological memory. Responses to a live-attenuated VZV vaccine were studied in relation to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) composition and function in a sample of 30 nursing home residents (aged 80-99 years). Interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) was used to measure VZV responses at baseline and 6 weeks following vaccination, and associations were sought with the frequencies of monocytes and T, B and natural killer (NK) cells and the production and secretion of cytokines following their ex-vivo stimulation with different agents. While only the frequency of interleukin (IL)-6+ CD14+ monocytes was inversely associated with post-vaccination VZV response, amounts of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secreted by PBMCs and the frequency of IL-1β+ CD14+ monocytes was positively correlated with pre-vaccination VZV response. Furthermore, both bivariate correlation and causal mediation analyses supported the notion that IL-1β+ CD14+ monocytes were significant mediators of the associations between IL-1β and TNF secretion by PBMCs and pre-vaccination VZV responses. Our findings implicate a strong cytokine response mediated by inflammatory IL-1β+ monocytes in coordinating responses of long-lived VZV-reactive memory T cells, but with an opposing effect of IL-6+ CD14+ monocytes. Whether monocyte status promotes or inhibits the induction and/or maintenance of these memory T cells later in life has yet to be determined.
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