The association between primary ovarian insufficiency and osteoporosis in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging
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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the association of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in a large cohort of women living in Canada. METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data from a deeply characterized cohort (female participants) of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging was used. Additional bio-psycho-social characteristics that may influence bone health and the development of osteoporosis were explored. RESULTS: The mean age of women at the time of baseline assessment was 65 years (N = 12,339). When comparing women with POI to those with early and normal age of menopause, there was no difference in hip BMD between groups, but women in the POI group were more likely to have a higher rate of self-reported osteoporosis (21.9% vs 16.7%) and have used osteoporosis drugs (11.39% vs 7.63%). After adjustment, POI was found to increase the odds of osteoporosis, as diagnosed using BMD. Current cigarette smoking was found to influence this association. Protective factors included obesity and current hormone therapy use, but not the duration of hormone therapy use. Women in the POI group were more likely to be obese, have decreased physical activity, and were more likely to be current smokers. CONCLUSION: These results confirm findings from smaller cohorts illustrating that POI is associated with osteoporosis. Increasing understanding of the sequelae associated with an earlier loss of ovarian function will aid in targeting earlier screening and intervention strategies for women in Canada and abroad.
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