Prenatal Care Outcomes in Women with Substance Use Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study
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OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine and compare the characteristics and prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes of women with and without substance use disorder (SUD). It also examined whether there were differences in prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes within the population of substance-using women based on the stability of their SUD during pregnancy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved pregnant women with and without SUD who accessed care through the Maternity Centre of Hamilton between 2015 and 2017. Cases and controls were matched 1:1 for gravidity, parity, ethnicity, smoking status, and postal code. RESULTS: Fifty-five pregnant women with SUD were identified and matched to 55 pregnant women without SUD. When analyzed by stability of substance use, women with stable SUD had similar outcomes to those of women without SUD. Women with unstable SUD received the poorest prenatal care and were more likely to have their infants removed from their care. There was significant movement towards stability of maternal substance use over the course of pregnancy in our integrated prenatal and addiction care model. CONCLUSION: Women with unstable SUD had poorer prenatal care and higher rates of custody loss than those with stable substance use disorders or those without substance use disorders. The disparate outcomes among women with unstable SUD may indicate a need to identify patients requiring greater support at entry into prenatal care and to target services accordingly. This integrated prenatal and addiction care model was effective in reducing maternal substance use in pregnancy.
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