HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors of HIV Seropositivity. This study therefore showed the spatial variation of HIV Seropositivity and related factors in Ethiopia.
A total sample of 25,774 individual data collected from the 2016 EDHS data were primarily HIV biomarkers, IR, MR, and GPS. Spatial heterogeneity analysis was used with methods such as Morans I, Interpolation, and Kulldorff ‘s scan statistic. Spatial analysis was conducted using open source tools (QGIS, GeoDa, SaTScan). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata14 to identify HIV-associated factors. Finally, the AOR with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the mixed-effect logistic regression result in the full model.
The prevalence of HIV / AIDS at national level was 0.93%. The highest prevalence regions were Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari and Diredawa, accounting for 4.79, 3.36, 2.65 and 2.6%, respectively. Higher HIV seropositive spatial clusters have been established in the Gambela and Addis Ababa regions. Multilevel analysis at the individual level being married [AOR = 2.19 95% CI: (1.11–4.31)] and previously married [AOR = 6.45, 95% CI: (3.06–13.59)], female [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: (1.19–2.72)], first-sex at age ≤15 [AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: (1.70–11.34)], 18—19 [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05–6.8)], middle age group (25-34) [AOR = 6.53, 95% CI: (3.67–11.75)], older age group (>34) [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05–6.8)], primary school [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI: (1.92–4.79)], secondary school [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: (1.92–5.92) were significantly associated with serropositivity. Regarding household level, place of residence [urban: AOR = 6.13 CI: (3.12, 12.06)], female-headed households (AOR = 2.24 95% CI: (1.57–3.73), media exposure [low exposure (AOR = 0.53 95% CI: (0.33–0.86), no exposure AOR = 0.39 95% CI: (0.23–0.65)] and increased household size [AOR = 0.72 95% CI: (0.65–0.8)] were associated with HIV Seropositivity.
High cluster HIV cases were found in Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari, and Diredawa. Having a history of married, start sex at a younger age, female-headed household, urban residence, and lower household size is more affected by HIV/AIDS. So any concerned body work around this risk group and area can be effective in the reduction of transmission.