Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 Academic Article uri icon

  •  
  • Overview
  •  
  • Research
  •  
  • Identity
  •  
  • Additional Document Info
  •  
  • View All
  •  

abstract

  • BACKGROUND: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. METHODS: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. FINDINGS: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990-2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0-9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10-24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10-24 years were also in the top ten in the 25-49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50-74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. INTERPRETATION: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

authors

  • Vos, Theo
  • Lim, Stephen S
  • Abbafati, Cristiana
  • Abbas, Kaja M
  • Abbasi, Mohammad
  • Abbasifard, Mitra
  • Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen
  • Abbastabar, Hedayat
  • Abd-Allah, Foad
  • Abdelalim, Ahmed
  • Abdollahi, Mohammad
  • Abdollahpour, Ibrahim
  • Abolhassani, Hassan
  • Aboyans, Victor
  • Abrams, Elissa M
  • Abreu, Lucas Guimarães
  • Abrigo, Michael RM
  • Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal
  • Abushouk, Abdelrahman I
  • Acebedo, Alyssa
  • Ackerman, Ilana N
  • Adabi, Maryam
  • Adamu, Abdu A
  • Adebayo, Oladimeji M
  • Adekanmbi, Victor
  • Adelson, Jaimie D
  • Adetokunboh, Olatunji O
  • Adham, Davoud
  • Afshari, Mahdi
  • Afshin, Ashkan
  • Agardh, Emilie E
  • Agarwal, Ragini Gina
  • Agesa, Kareha M
  • Aghaali, Mohammad
  • Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem
  • Agrawal, Anurag
  • Ahmad, Tauseef
  • Ahmadi, Alireza
  • Ahmadi, Mehdi
  • Ahmadieh, Hamid
  • Ahmadpour, Ehsan
  • Akalu, Temesgen Yihunie
  • Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
  • Akinyemiju, Tomi
  • Akombi, Blessing
  • Al-Aly, Ziyad
  • Alam, Khurshid
  • Alam, Noore
  • Alam, Samiah
  • Alam, Tahiya
  • Alanzi, Turki M
  • Albertson, Samuel B
  • Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth
  • Alema, Niguse Meles
  • Ali, Muhammad
  • Ali, Saqib
  • Alicandro, Gianfranco
  • Alijanzadeh, Mehran
  • Alinia, Cyrus
  • Alipour, Vahid
  • Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
  • Alla, François
  • Allebeck, Peter
  • Almasi-Hashiani, Amir
  • Alonso, Jordi
  • Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M
  • Altirkawi, Khalid A
  • Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
  • Alvis-Zakzuk, Nelson J
  • Amini, Saeed
  • Amini-Rarani, Mostafa
  • Aminorroaya, Arya
  • Amiri, Fatemeh
  • Amit, Arianna Maever L
  • Amugsi, Dickson A
  • Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
  • Anderlini, Deanna
  • Andrei, Catalina Liliana
  • Andrei, Tudorel
  • Anjomshoa, Mina
  • Ansari, Fereshteh
  • Ansari, Iman
  • Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
  • Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
  • Antony, Catherine M
  • Antriyandarti, Ernoiz
  • Anvari, Davood
  • Anwer, Razique
  • Arabloo, Jalal
  • Arab-Zozani, Morteza
  • Aravkin, Aleksandr Y
  • Ariani, Filippo
  • Ärnlöv, Johan
  • Aryal, Krishna K
  • Arzani, Afsaneh
  • Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran
  • Asadi-Pooya, Ali A
  • Asghari, Babak
  • Ashbaugh, Charlie
  • Atnafu, Desta Debalkie
  • Atre, Sachin R
  • Ausloos, Floriane
  • Ausloos, Marcel
  • Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
  • Ayano, Getinet
  • Ayanore, Martin Amogre
  • Aynalem, Yared Asmare
  • Azari, Samad
  • Azarian, Ghasem
  • Azene, Zelalem Nigussie
  • Babaee, Ebrahim
  • Badawi, Alaa
  • Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba
  • Bakhshaei, Mohammad Hossein
  • Bakhtiari, Ahad
  • Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar
  • Balalla, Shivanthi
  • Balassyano, Shelly
  • Banach, Maciej
  • Banik, Palash Chandra
  • Bannick, Marlena S
  • Bante, Agegnehu Bante
  • Baraki, Adhanom Gebreegziabher
  • Barboza, Miguel A
  • Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
  • Barthelemy, Celine M
  • Barua, Lingkan
  • Barzegar, Akbar
  • Basu, Sanjay
  • Baune, Bernhard T
  • Bayati, Mohsen
  • Bazmandegan, Gholamreza
  • Bedi, Neeraj
  • Beghi, Ettore
  • Béjot, Yannick
  • Bello, Aminu K
  • Bender, Rose G
  • Bennett, Derrick A
  • Bennitt, Fiona B
  • Bensenor, Isabela M
  • Benziger, Catherine P
  • Berhe, Kidanemaryam
  • Bernabe, Eduardo
  • Bertolacci, Gregory J
  • Bhageerathy, Reshmi
  • Bhala, Neeraj
  • Bhandari, Dinesh
  • Bhardwaj, Pankaj
  • Bhattacharyya, Krittika
  • Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
  • Bibi, Sadia
  • Biehl, Molly H
  • Bikbov, Boris
  • Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
  • Biondi, Antonio
  • Birihane, Binyam Minuye
  • Bisanzio, Donal
  • Bisignano, Catherine
  • Biswas, Raaj Kishore
  • Bohlouli, Somayeh
  • Bohluli, Mehdi
  • Bolla, Srinivasa Rao Rao
  • Boloor, Archith
  • Boon-Dooley, Alexandra S
  • Borges, Guilherme
  • Borzì, Antonio Maria
  • Bourne, Rupert
  • Brady, Oliver J
  • Brauer, Michael
  • Brayne, Carol
  • Breitborde, Nicholas JK
  • Brenner, Hermann
  • Briant, Paul Svitil
  • Briggs, Andrew M
  • Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich
  • Britton, Gabrielle B
  • Bryazka, Dana
  • Buchbinder, Rachelle
  • Bumgarner, Blair R
  • Busse, Reinhard
  • Butt, Zahid A
  • Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano
  • Cámera, Luis LA Alberto
  • Campos-Nonato, Ismael R
  • Car, Josip
  • Cárdenas, Rosario
  • Carreras, Giulia
  • Carrero, Juan J
  • Carvalho, Felix
  • Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio
  • Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A
  • Castelpietra, Giulio
  • Castle, Chris D
  • Castro, Franz
  • Catalá-López, Ferrán
  • Causey, Kate
  • Cederroth, Christopher R
  • Cercy, Kelly M
  • Cerin, Ester
  • Chandan, Joht Singh
  • Chang, Alex R
  • Charlson, Fiona J
  • Chattu, Vijay Kumar
  • Chaturvedi, Sarika
  • Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
  • Chin, Ken Lee
  • Cho, Daniel Youngwhan
  • Christensen, Hanne
  • Chu, Dinh-Toi
  • Chung, Michael T
  • Cicuttini, Flavia M
  • Ciobanu, Liliana G
  • Cirillo, Massimo
  • Collins, Emma L
  • Compton, Kelly
  • Conti, Sara
  • Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
  • Costa, Vera Marisa
  • Cousin, Ewerton
  • Cowden, Richard G
  • Cowie, Benjamin C
  • Cromwell, Elizabeth A
  • Cross, Di H
  • Crowe, Christopher Stephen
  • Cruz, Jessica A
  • Cunningham, Matthew
  • Dahlawi, Saad MA
  • Damiani, Giovanni
  • Dandona, Lalit
  • Dandona, Rakhi
  • Darwesh, Aso Mohammad
  • Daryani, Ahmad
  • Das, Jai K
  • Das Gupta, Rajat
  • das Neves, José
  • Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto
  • Davletov, Kairat
  • De Leo, Diego
  • Dean, Frances E
  • DeCleene, Nicole K
  • Deen, Amanda
  • Degenhardt, Louisa
  • Dellavalle, Robert Paul
  • Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen
  • Demsie, Desalegn Getnet
  • Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar
  • Dereje, Nebiyu Dereje
  • Dervenis, Nikolaos
  • Desai, Rupak
  • Desalew, Assefa
  • Dessie, Getenet Ayalew
  • Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
  • Dhungana, Govinda Prasad
  • Dianatinasab, Mostafa
  • Diaz, Daniel
  • Dibaji Forooshani, Zahra Sadat
  • Dingels, Zachary V
  • Dirac, M Ashworth
  • Djalalinia, Shirin
  • Do, Hoa Thi
  • Dokova, Klara
  • Dorostkar, Fariba
  • Doshi, Chirag P
  • Doshmangir, Leila
  • Douiri, Abdel
  • Doxey, Matthew C
  • Driscoll, Tim Robert
  • Dunachie, Susanna J
  • Duncan, Bruce B
  • Duraes, Andre Rodrigues
  • Eagan, Arielle Wilder
  • Ebrahimi Kalan, Mohammad
  • Edvardsson, David
  • Ehrlich, Joshua R
  • El Nahas, Nevine
  • El Sayed, Iman
  • El Tantawi, Maha
  • Elbarazi, Iffat
  • Elgendy, Islam Y
  • Elhabashy, Hala Rashad
  • El-Jaafary, Shaimaa I
  • Elyazar, Iqbal RF
  • Emamian, Mohammad Hassan
  • Emmons-Bell, Sophia
  • Erskine, Holly E
  • Eshrati, Babak
  • Eskandarieh, Sharareh
  • Esmaeilnejad, Saman
  • Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz
  • Esteghamati, Alireza
  • Estep, Kara
  • Etemadi, Arash
  • Etisso, Atkilt Esaiyas
  • Farahmand, Mohammad
  • Faraj, Anwar
  • Fareed, Mohammad
  • Faridnia, Roghiyeh
  • Farinha, Carla Sofia E Sá
  • Farioli, Andrea
  • Faro, Andre
  • Faruque, Mithila
  • Farzadfar, Farshad
  • Fattahi, Nazir
  • Fazlzadeh, Mehdi
  • Feigin, Valery L
  • Feldman, Rachel
  • Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
  • Fernandes, Eduarda
  • Ferrari, Alize J
  • Ferreira, Manuela L
  • Filip, Irina
  • Fischer, Florian
  • Fisher, James L
  • Fitzgerald, Ryan
  • Flohr, Carsten
  • Flor, Luisa Sorio
  • Foigt, Nataliya A
  • Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
  • Force, Lisa M
  • Fornari, Carla
  • Foroutan, Masoud
  • Fox, Jack T
  • Freitas, Marisa
  • Fu, Weijia
  • Fukumoto, Takeshi
  • Furtado, João M
  • Gad, Mohamed M
  • Gakidou, Emmanuela
  • Galles, Natalie C
  • Gallus, Silvano
  • Gamkrelidze, Amiran
  • Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L
  • Gardner, William M
  • Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle
  • Gebrehiwot, Abiyu Mekonnen
  • Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork
  • Gebreslassie, Assefa Ayalew Ayalew Ayalew
  • Gershberg Hayoon, Anna
  • Gething, Peter W
  • Ghadimi, Maryam
  • Ghadiri, Keyghobad
  • Ghafourifard, Mansour
  • Ghajar, Alireza
  • Ghamari, Farhad
  • Ghashghaee, Ahmad
  • Ghiasvand, Hesam
  • Ghith, Nermin
  • Gholamian, Asadollah
  • Gilani, Syed Amir
  • Gill, Paramjit Singh
  • Gitimoghaddam, Mojgan
  • Giussani, Giorgia
  • Goli, Srinivas
  • Gomez, Ricardo Santiago
  • Gopalani, Sameer Vali
  • Gorini, Giuseppe
  • Gorman, Taren M
  • Gottlich, Harrison Chase
  • Goudarzi, Houman
  • Goulart, Alessandra C
  • Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia
  • Grada, Ayman
  • Grivna, Michal
  • Grosso, Giuseppe
  • Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen
  • Gugnani, Harish Chander
  • Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena
  • Guimarães, Rafael Alves
  • Guled, Rashid Abdi
  • Guo, Gaorui
  • Guo, Yuming
  • Gupta, Rajeev
  • Haagsma, Juanita A
  • Haddock, Beatrix
  • Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
  • Hafiz, Abdul
  • Hagins, Hailey
  • Haile, Lydia M
  • Hall, Brian J
  • Halvaei, Iman
  • Hamadeh, Randah R
  • Hamagharib Abdullah, Kanaan
  • Hamilton, Erin B
  • Han, Chieh
  • Han, Hannah
  • Hankey, Graeme J
  • Haro, Josep Maria
  • Harvey, James D
  • Hasaballah, Ahmed I
  • Hasanzadeh, Amir
  • Hashemian, Maryam
  • Hassanipour, Soheil
  • Hassankhani, Hadi
  • Havmoeller, Rasmus J
  • Hay, Roderick J
  • Hay, Simon I
  • Hayat, Khezar
  • Heidari, Behnam
  • Heidari, Golnaz
  • Heidari-Soureshjani, Reza
  • Hendrie, Delia
  • Henrikson, Hannah J
  • Henry, Nathaniel J
  • Herteliu, Claudiu
  • Heydarpour, Fatemeh
  • Hird, Thomas R
  • Hoek, Hans W
  • Hole, Michael K
  • Holla, Ramesh
  • Hoogar, Praveen
  • Hosgood, H Dean
  • Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi
  • Hostiuc, Mihaela
  • Hostiuc, Sorin
  • Househ, Mowafa
  • Hoy, Damian G
  • Hsairi, Mohamed
  • Hsieh, Vivian Chia-rong
  • Hu, Guoqing
  • Huda, Tanvir M
  • Hugo, Fernando N
  • Huynh, Chantal K
  • Hwang, Bing-Fang
  • Iannucci, Vincent C
  • Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel
  • Ikuta, Kevin S
  • Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
  • Ilic, Irena M
  • Ilic, Milena D
  • Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja
  • Ippolito, Helen
  • Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
  • Islam, M Mofizul
  • Islam, MdMohaimenul
  • Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
  • Islami, Farhad
  • Iso, Hiroyasu
  • Ivers, Rebecca Q
  • Iwu, Chidozie CD
  • Iyamu, Ihoghosa Osamuyi
  • Jaafari, Jalil
  • Jacobsen, Kathryn H
  • Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad
  • Jafari, Hussain
  • Jafarinia, Morteza
  • Jahagirdar, Deepa
  • Jahani, Mohammad Ali
  • Jahanmehr, Nader
  • Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
  • Jalali, Amir
  • Jalilian, Farzad
  • James, Spencer L
  • Janjani, Hosna
  • Janodia, Manthan Dilipkumar
  • Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
  • Jeemon, Panniyammakal
  • Jenabi, Ensiyeh
  • Jha, Ravi Prakash
  • Jha, Vivekanand
  • Ji, John S
  • Jia, Peng
  • John, Oommen
  • John-Akinola, Yetunde O
  • Johnson, Catherine Owens
  • Johnson, Sarah Charlotte
  • Jonas, Jost B
  • Joo, Tamas
  • Joshi, Ankur
  • Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
  • Jürisson, Mikk
  • Kabir, Ali
  • Kabir, Zubair
  • Kalani, Hamed
  • Kalani, Rizwan
  • Kalankesh, Leila R
  • Kalhor, Rohollah
  • Kamiab, Zahra
  • Kanchan, Tanuj
  • Karami Matin, Behzad
  • Karch, André
  • Karim, Mohd Anisul
  • Karimi, Salah Eddin
  • Kassa, Getachew Mullu
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J
  • Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
  • Kawakami, Norito
  • Kayode, Gbenga A
  • Keddie, Suzanne H
  • Keller, Cathleen
  • Kereselidze, Maia
  • Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
  • Khalid, Nauman
  • Khan, Maseer
  • Khatab, Khaled
  • Khater, Mona M
  • Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli
  • Khayamzadeh, Maryam
  • Khodayari, Mohammad Taghi
  • Khundkar, Roba
  • Kianipour, Neda
  • Kieling, Christian
  • Kim, Daniel
  • Kim, Young-Eun
  • Kim, Yun Jin
  • Kimokoti, Ruth W
  • Kisa, Adnan
  • Kisa, Sezer
  • Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna
  • Kivimäki, Mika
  • Kneib, Cameron J
  • Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo
  • Kocarnik, Jonathan M
  • Kolola, Tufa
  • Kopec, Jacek A
  • Kosen, Soewarta
  • Koul, Parvaiz A
  • Koyanagi, Ai
  • Kravchenko, Michael A
  • Krishan, Kewal
  • Krohn, Kris J
  • Kuate Defo, Barthelemy
  • Kucuk Bicer, Burcu
  • Kumar, G Anil
  • Kumar, Manasi
  • Kumar, Pushpendra
  • Kumar, Vivek
  • Kumaresh, Girikumar
  • Kurmi, Om P
  • Kusuma, Dian
  • Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe
  • La Vecchia, Carlo
  • Lacey, Ben
  • Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
  • Lalloo, Ratilal
  • Lam, Jennifer O
  • Lami, Faris Hasan
  • Landires, Iván
  • Lang, Justin J
  • Lansingh, Van Charles
  • Larson, Samantha Leigh
  • Larsson, Anders O
  • Lasrado, Savita
  • Lassi, Zohra S
  • Lau, Kathryn Mei-Ming
  • Lavados, Pablo M
  • Lazarus, Jeffrey V
  • Ledesma, Jorge R
  • Lee, Paul H
  • Lee, Shaun Wen Huey
  • LeGrand, Kate E
  • Leigh, James
  • Leonardi, Matilde
  • Lescinsky, Haley
  • Leung, Janni
  • Levi, Miriam
  • Lewington, Sarah
  • Li, Shanshan
  • Lim, Lee-Ling
  • Lin, Christine
  • Lin, Ro-Ting
  • Linehan, Christine
  • Linn, Shai
  • Liu, Hung-Chun
  • Liu, Shiwei
  • Liu, Zichen
  • Looker, Katharine J
  • Lopez, Alan D
  • Lopukhov, Platon D
  • Lorkowski, Stefan
  • Lotufo, Paulo A
  • Lucas, Tim CD
  • Lugo, Alessandra
  • Lunevicius, Raimundas
  • Lyons, Ronan A
  • Ma, Jianing
  • MacLachlan, Jennifer H
  • Maddison, Emilie R
  • Maddison, Ralph
  • Madotto, Fabiana
  • Mahasha, Phetole Walter
  • Mai, Hue Thi
  • Majeed, Azeem
  • Maled, Venkatesh
  • Maleki, Shokofeh
  • Malekzadeh, Reza
  • Malta, Deborah Carvalho
  • Mamun, Abdullah A
  • Manafi, Amir
  • Manafi, Navid
  • Manguerra, Helena
  • Mansouri, Borhan
  • Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
  • Mantilla Herrera, Ana M
  • Maravilla, Joemer C
  • Marks, Ashley
  • Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio
  • Martopullo, Ira
  • Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra
  • Massano, João
  • Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
  • Mathur, Manu Raj
  • Maulik, Pallab K
  • McAlinden, Colm
  • McGrath, John J
  • McKee, Martin
  • Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
  • Mehri, Fereshteh
  • Mehta, Kala M
  • Meitei, Wahengbam Bigyananda
  • Memiah, Peter TN
  • Mendoza, Walter
  • Menezes, Ritesh G
  • Mengesha, Endalkachew Worku
  • Mengesha, Meresa Berwo
  • Mereke, Alibek
  • Meretoja, Atte
  • Meretoja, Tuomo J
  • Mestrovic, Tomislav
  • Miazgowski, Bartosz
  • Miazgowski, Tomasz
  • Michalek, Irmina Maria
  • Mihretie, Kebadnew Mulatu
  • Miller, Ted R
  • Mills, Edward Joseph
  • Mirica, Andreea
  • Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
  • Mirzaei, Hamed
  • Mirzaei, Maryam
  • Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi
  • Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen
  • Mithra, Prasanna
  • Moazen, Babak
  • Moghadaszadeh, Masoud
  • Mohamadi, Efat
  • Mohammad, Dara K
  • Mohammad, Yousef
  • Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Naser
  • Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah
  • Mohammadifard, Noushin
  • Mohammadpourhodki, Reza
  • Mohammed, Shafiu
  • Mokdad, Ali H
  • Molokhia, Mariam
  • Momen, Natalie C
  • Monasta, Lorenzo
  • Mondello, Stefania
  • Mooney, Meghan D
  • Moosazadeh, Mahmood
  • Moradi, Ghobad
  • Moradi, Masoud
  • Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
  • Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah
  • Moraga, Paula
  • Morales, Linda
  • Morawska, Lidia
  • Moreno Velásquez, Ilais
  • Morgado-da-Costa, Joana
  • Morrison, Shane Douglas
  • Mosser, Jonathan F
  • Mouodi, Simin
  • Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
  • Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin
  • Mueller, Ulrich Otto
  • Munro, Sandra B
  • Muriithi, Moses K
  • Musa, Kamarul Imran
  • Muthupandian, Saravanan
  • Naderi, Mehdi
  • Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman
  • Nagel, Gabriele
  • Naghshtabrizi, Behshad
  • Nair, Sanjeev
  • Nandi, Anita K
  • Nangia, Vinay
  • Nansseu, Jobert Richie
  • Nayak, Vinod C
  • Nazari, Javad
  • Negoi, Ionut
  • Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
  • Netsere, Henok Biresaw Netsere
  • Ngunjiri, Josephine W
  • Nguyen, Cuong Tat
  • Nguyen, Jason
  • Nguyen, Michele
  • Nguyen, Minh
  • Nichols, Emma
  • Nigatu, Dabere
  • Nigatu, Yeshambel T
  • Nikbakhsh, Rajan
  • Nixon, Molly R
  • Nnaji, Chukwudi A
  • Nomura, Shuhei
  • Norrving, Bo
  • Noubiap, Jean Jacques
  • Nowak, Christoph
  • Nunez-Samudio, Virginia
  • Oţoiu, Adrian
  • Oancea, Bogdan
  • Odell, Christopher M
  • Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
  • Oh, In-Hwan
  • Okunga, Emmanuel Wandera
  • Oladnabi, Morteza
  • Olagunju, Andrew
  • Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
  • Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
  • Oluwasanu, Mojisola Morenike
  • Omar Bali, Ahmed
  • Omer, Muktar Omer
  • Ong, Kanyin L
  • Onwujekwe, Obinna E
  • Orji, Aislyn U
  • Orpana, Heather M
  • Ortiz, Alberto
  • Ostroff, Samuel M
  • Otstavnov, Nikita
  • Otstavnov, Stanislav S
  • Øverland, Simon
  • Owolabi, Mayowa O
  • P A, Mahesh
  • Padubidri, Jagadish Rao
  • Pakhare, Abhijit P
  • Palladino, Raffaele
  • Pana, Adrian
  • Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
  • Pandey, Anamika
  • Park, Eun-Kee
  • Parmar, Priya G Kumari
  • Pasupula, Deepak Kumar
  • Patel, Sangram Kishor
  • Paternina-Caicedo, Angel J
  • Pathak, Ashish
  • Pathak, Mona
  • Patten, Scott B
  • Patton, George C
  • Paudel, Deepak
  • Pazoki Toroudi, Hamidreza
  • Peden, Amy E
  • Pennini, Alyssa
  • Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino
  • Peprah, Emmanuel K
  • Pereira, Alexandre
  • Pereira, David M
  • Perico, Norberto
  • Pham, Hai Quang
  • Phillips, Michael R
  • Pigott, David M
  • Pilgrim, Thomas
  • Pilz, Tessa M
  • Pirsaheb, Meghdad
  • Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer
  • Plass, Dietrich
  • Pokhrel, Khem Narayan
  • Polibin, Roman V
  • Polinder, Suzanne
  • Polkinghorne, Kevan R
  • Postma, Maarten J
  • Pourjafar, Hadi
  • Pourmalek, Farshad
  • Pourmirza Kalhori, Reza
  • Pourshams, Akram
  • Poznańska, Anna
  • Prada, Sergio I
  • Prakash, V
  • Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga
  • Pupillo, Elisabetta
  • Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin
  • Rabiee, Mohammad
  • Rabiee, Navid
  • Radfar, Amir
  • Rafiee, Ata
  • Rafiei, Alireza
  • Raggi, Alberto
  • Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
  • Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
  • Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali
  • Rajati, Fatemeh
  • Ramezanzadeh, Kiana
  • Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
  • Rao, Puja C
  • Rao, Sowmya J
  • Rasella, Davide
  • Rastogi, Prateek
  • Rathi, Priya
  • Rawaf, David Laith
  • Rawaf, Salman
  • Rawal, Lal
  • Razo, Christian
  • Redford, Sofia Boston
  • Reiner, Robert C
  • Reinig, Nickolas
  • Reitsma, Marissa Bettay
  • Remuzzi, Giuseppe
  • Renjith, Vishnu
  • Renzaho, Andre MN
  • Resnikoff, Serge
  • Rezaei, Nima
  • Rezai, Mohammad sadegh
  • Rezapour, Aziz
  • Rhinehart, Phoebe-Anne
  • Riahi, Seyed Mohammad
  • Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P
  • Ribeiro, Daniel Cury
  • Ribeiro, Daniela
  • Rickard, Jennifer
  • Roberts, Nicholas LS
  • Roberts, Shaun
  • Robinson, Stephen R
  • Roever, Leonardo
  • Rolfe, Sam
  • Ronfani, Luca
  • Roshandel, Gholamreza
  • Roth, Gregory A
  • Rubagotti, Enrico
  • Rumisha, Susan Fred
  • Sabour, Siamak
  • Sachdev, Perminder S
  • Saddik, Basema
  • Sadeghi, Ehsan
  • Sadeghi, Masoumeh
  • Saeidi, Shahram
  • Safi, Sare
  • Safiri, Saeid
  • Sagar, Rajesh
  • Sahebkar, Amirhossein
  • Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
  • Sajadi, S Mohammad
  • Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza
  • Salamati, Payman
  • Salehi Zahabi, Saleh
  • Salem, Hosni
  • Salem, Marwa R Rashad
  • Salimzadeh, Hamideh
  • Salomon, Joshua A
  • Salz, Inbal
  • Samad, Zainab
  • Samy, Abdallah M
  • Sanabria, Juan
  • Santomauro, Damian Francesco
  • Santos, Itamar S
  • Santos, João Vasco
  • Santric-Milicevic, Milena M
  • Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer
  • Sarmiento-Suárez, Rodrigo
  • Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
  • Sartorius, Benn
  • Sarveazad, Arash
  • Sathian, Brijesh
  • Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu
  • Sattin, Davide
  • Sbarra, Alyssa N
  • Schaeffer, Lauren E
  • Schiavolin, Silvia
  • Schmidt, Maria Inês
  • Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
  • Schwebel, David C
  • Schwendicke, Falk
  • Senbeta, Anbissa Muleta
  • Senthilkumaran, Subramanian
  • Sepanlou, Sadaf G
  • Shackelford, Katya Anne
  • Shadid, Jamileh
  • Shahabi, Saeed
  • Shaheen, Amira A
  • Shaikh, Masood Ali
  • Shalash, Ali S
  • Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
  • Shamsizadeh, Morteza
  • Shannawaz, Mohammed
  • Sharafi, Kiomars
  • Sharara, Fablina
  • Sheena, Brittney S
  • Sheikhtaheri, Abbas
  • Shetty, Ranjitha S
  • Shibuya, Kenji
  • Shiferaw, Wondimeneh Shibabaw
  • Shigematsu, Mika
  • Shin, Jae Il
  • Shiri, Rahman
  • Shirkoohi, Reza
  • Shrime, Mark G
  • Shuval, Kerem
  • Siabani, Soraya
  • Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
  • Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
  • Silva, João Pedro
  • Simpson, Kyle E
  • Singh, Ambrish
  • Singh, Jasvinder A
  • Skiadaresi, Eirini
  • Skou, Søren T Skou
  • Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich
  • Sobngwi, Eugene
  • Sokhan, Anton
  • Soltani, Shahin
  • Sorensen, Reed JD
  • Soriano, Joan B
  • Sorrie, Muluken Bekele
  • Soyiri, Ireneous N
  • Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
  • Stanaway, Jeffrey D
  • Stark, Benjamin A
  • Ştefan, Simona Cătălina
  • Stein, Caroline
  • Steiner, Caitlyn
  • Steiner, Timothy J
  • Stokes, Mark A
  • Stovner, Lars Jacob
  • Stubbs, Jacob L
  • Sudaryanto, Agus
  • Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
  • Sulo, Gerhard
  • Sultan, Iyad
  • Sykes, Bryan L
  • Sylte, Dillon O
  • Szócska, Miklós
  • Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael
  • Tabb, Karen M
  • Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar
  • Taherkhani, Amir
  • Tajdini, Masih
  • Takahashi, Ken
  • Taveira, Nuno
  • Teagle, Whitney L
  • Teame, Hirut
  • Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
  • Teklehaimanot, Berhane Fseha
  • Terrason, Sonyah
  • Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse
  • Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman
  • Thomson, Azalea M
  • Tohidinik, Hamid Reza
  • Tonelli, Marcello
  • Topor-Madry, Roman
  • Torre, Anna E
  • Touvier, Mathilde
  • Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto Roberto
  • Tran, Bach Xuan
  • Travillian, Ravensara
  • Troeger, Christopher E
  • Truelsen, Thomas Clement
  • Tsai, Alexander C
  • Tsatsakis, Aristidis
  • Tudor Car, Lorainne
  • Tyrovolas, Stefanos
  • Uddin, Riaz
  • Ullah, Saif
  • Undurraga, Eduardo A
  • Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran
  • Vacante, Marco
  • Vakilian, Alireza
  • Valdez, Pascual R
  • Varughese, Santosh
  • Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
  • Vasseghian, Yasser
  • Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
  • Violante, Francesco S
  • Vlassov, Vasily
  • Vollset, Stein Emil
  • Vongpradith, Avina
  • Vukovic, Ana
  • Vukovic, Rade
  • Waheed, Yasir
  • Walters, Madgalene K
  • Wang, Jiayu
  • Wang, Yafeng
  • Wang, Yuan-Pang
  • Ward, Joseph L
  • Watson, Alexandrea
  • Wei, Jingkai
  • Weintraub, Robert G
  • Weiss, Daniel J
  • Weiss, Jordan
  • Westerman, Ronny
  • Whisnant, Joanna L
  • Whiteford, Harvey A
  • Wiangkham, Taweewat
  • Wiens, Kirsten E
  • Wijeratne, Tissa
  • Wilner, Lauren B
  • Wilson, Shadrach
  • Wojtyniak, Bogdan
  • Wolfe, Charles DA
  • Wool, Eve E
  • Wu, Ai-Min
  • Wulf Hanson, Sarah
  • Wunrow, Han Yong
  • Xu, Gelin
  • Xu, Rixing
  • Yadgir, Simon
  • Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Seyed Hossein
  • Yamagishi, Kazumasa
  • Yaminfirooz, Mousa
  • Yano, Yuichiro
  • Yaya, Sanni
  • Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid
  • Yearwood, Jamal A
  • Yeheyis, Tomas Y
  • Yeshitila, Yordanos Gizachew
  • Yip, Paul
  • Yonemoto, Naohiro
  • Yoon, Seok-Jun
  • Yoosefi Lebni, Javad
  • Younis, Mustafa Z
  • Younker, Theodore Patrick
  • Yousefi, Zabihollah
  • Yousefifard, Mahmoud
  • Yousefinezhadi, Taraneh
  • Yousuf, Abdilahi Yousuf
  • Yu, Chuanhua
  • Yusefzadeh, Hasan
  • Zahirian Moghadam, Telma
  • Zaki, Leila
  • Zaman, Sojib Bin
  • Zamani, Mohammad
  • Zamanian, Maryam
  • Zandian, Hamed
  • Zangeneh, Alireza
  • Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich
  • Zewdie, Kaleab Alemayehu
  • Zhang, Yunquan
  • Zhang, Zhi-Jiang
  • Zhao, Jeff T
  • Zhao, Yingxi
  • Zheng, Peng
  • Zhou, Maigeng
  • Ziapour, Arash
  • Zimsen, Stephanie RM
  • Naghavi, Mohsen
  • Murray, Christopher JL

publication date

  • October 2020