Deciphering the Causes of Cardiovascular and Other Complex Diseases in Populations: Achievements, Challenges, Opportunities, and Approaches
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This paper provides an overview of key achievements of the Framingham Heart Study and identifies areas and approaches for future research in cardiovascular disease epidemiology and prevention. There is a need for a range of different studies using diverse designs (i.e. case-control, cohort, multi-community, birth cohort, family-based cohorts and randomized trials) in different settings and involving multiple ethnic groups. Incorporation of a range of new disciplines, such as genetics, behavioural sciences, social epidemiology, measures of the environment, geography, and health policy are required to understand the root determinants of cardiovascular diseases.
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