The Canadian Long Term Pavement Performance (C-LTPP) study, initiated in 1989, involves 65 sections located at 24 sites constructed with various asphalt overlay rehabilitation treatments. This study investigates the impacts of the various alternative rehabilitation treatments on pavement roughness progression. A series of models are developed for predicting the rate of pavement deterioration occurring for the first 8 years of service. The models examine both within-site factors and between-site factors. Site location is found to be the primary influence on the rate of pavement deterioration. Overlay thickness and the amount of cracking prior to rehabilitation are also determined to influence pavement deterioration at a strong statistical level. Models are provided for benchmarking the performance of pavements across Canada, for comparison with individual project designs, and for estimating the performance of designs with different overlay thickness.Key words: Canadian Long Term Pavement Performance program, roughness, pavement deterioration, site effects, asphalt overlays, benchmark, univariate analysis.