This study investigated the pore structure and its effects on mechanical properties of lightweight cellular concrete (LCC) in order to understand more and detailed characteristics of such structure. As part of investigation, environment scanning electron microscopes (ESEM) and industrial high-definition (HD) macro photography camera were separately used to capture and compare images of specimens. Physical properties of the pore structure, including pore area, size, perimeter, fit ellipse, and shape descriptors, were studied based on the image processing technology and software applications. Specimens with three different densities (400, 475, and 600 kg/m3) were prepared in the laboratory. Firstly, the effects of density on the characteristics of pore structure were investigated; furthermore, mechanical properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength of LCC) were tested. The relationships among pore characteristics, density, and mechanical properties were analyzed. Based on the results obtained from the lab test—comparisons made between specimens with high-densities and those with low-densities—it was found significant variability in bubble size, thickness, and irregularity of pores. Furthermore, the increase of density is accompanied by better mechanical properties, and the main influencing factors are the thickness of the solid part and the shape of the bubble. The thicker of solid part and more regular pores of LCC has, the better mechanical properties are.