Expansions of the real field by open sets: definability versus interpretability
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An open set U of the real numbers R is produced such that the expansion
(R,+,x,U) of the real field by U defines a Borel isomorph of (R,+,x,N) but does
not define N. It follows that (R,+,x,U) defines sets in every level of the
projective hierarchy but does not define all projective sets. This result is
elaborated in various ways that involve geometric measure theory and working
over o-minimal expansions of (R,+,x). In particular, there is a Cantor subset K
of R such that for every exponentially bounded o-minimal expansion M of
(R,+,x), every subset of R definable in (M,K) either has interior or is
Hausdorff null.