High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin—Optimizing the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction/Injury in Women (CODE-MI): Rationale and design for a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • Despite evidence that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) levels in women are lower than in men, a single threshold based on the 99th percentile upper reference limit of the overall reference population is commonly used to diagnose myocardial infarction in clinical practice. This trial aims to determine whether the use of a lower female-specific hs-cTn threshold would improve the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of women presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia. METHODS/DESIGN: CODE-MI (hs-cTn-Optimizing the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction/Injury in Women) is a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial of 30 secondary and tertiary care hospitals across 8 Canadian provinces, with the unit of randomization being the hospital. All adults (≥20 years of age) presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia and at least 1 hs-cTn test are eligible for inclusion. Over five, 5-month intervals, hospitals will be randomized to implement lower female hs-cTn thresholds according to the assay being used at each site. Men will continue to be assessed using the overall thresholds throughout. Women with a peak hs-cTn value between the female-specific and the overall thresholds will form our primary cohort. The primary outcome, a 1-year composite of all-cause mortality or readmission for nonfatal myocardial infarction, incident heart failure, or emergent/urgent coronary revascularization, will be compared before and after the implementation of female thresholds using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The cohort and outcomes will be obtained from routinely collected administrative data. The trial is designed to detect a 20% relative risk difference in the primary outcome, or a 2.2% absolute difference, with 82% power. CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial will assess whether adopting lower female hs-cTn thresholds leads to appropriate assessment of women with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, thereby improving treatment and outcomes.

authors

  • Zhao, Yinshan
  • Izadnegahdar, Mona
  • Lee, May K
  • Kavsak, Peter
  • Singer, Joel
  • Scheuermeyer, Frank
  • Udell, Jacob A
  • Robinson, Simon
  • Norris, Colleen M
  • Lyon, Andrew W
  • Pilote, Louise
  • Cox, Jafna
  • Hassan, Ansar
  • Rychtera, Anni
  • Johnson, Denise
  • Mills, Nicholas L
  • Christenson, Jim
  • Humphries, Karin H

publication date

  • November 2020