Pulmonary homograft dysfunction after the Ross procedure using decellularized homografts—a multicenter study
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OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary homograft dysfunction is a limitation after the Ross procedure. Decellularized pulmonary homografts can potentially mitigate this complication. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, predictors, progression, and morphology of pulmonary homograft dysfunction using data from the Canadian Ross Registry. METHODS: From 2011 to 2019, 466 consecutive patients (mean age: 47 ± 12 years, 73% male) underwent a Ross procedure using a decellularized cryopreserved pulmonary homograft (SynerGraft SG; CryoKife, Kennesaw, Ga). Pulmonary homograft dysfunction was defined as any of the following: peak pulmonary gradient ≥30 mm Hg, pulmonary regurgitation >2, or pulmonary homograft reintervention. Patients meeting ≥1 of these criteria (n = 30) were compared with the rest of the cohort (n = 436). Median follow-up is 2.2 years (maximum = 8.5 years) and 99% complete (1176 patient-years). RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of pulmonary homograft dysfunction was 11 ± 2% at 6 years. Pulmonary homograft stenosis was the most frequent presentation (n = 28 patients, 93%). Morphologically, stenosis occurred most often along the conduit (59%). Overall, 4 patients required homograft reintervention. At 6 years, the cumulative incidence of homograft reintervention was 3 ± 1%. The instantaneous risk was greatest in the first year after surgery (3.5%/year) and decreased to <1%/year thereafter. Patient age <45 years was the only independent risk factor associated with pulmonary homograft dysfunction (hazard ratio, 3.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The use of decellularized cryopreserved pulmonary homografts results in a low incidence of dysfunction and reintervention after the Ross procedure. The risk is greater in the first postoperative year. Younger age is the only independent risk factor for pulmonary homograft dysfunction.
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