Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence and Correlates of Urinary Incontinence in Older Home-Care Clients With Type 2 Diabetes in Ontario, Canada
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OBJECTIVES: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a burdensome condition for older adults with diabetes receiving home-care services, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of UI in this population. The objective of this cross-sectional study, informed by a complexity model, was to determine the prevalence and correlates of UI in older adults with diabetes receiving home care in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed population-level data of the most recently completed Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care from 2011 to 2016 for older (≥65 years) home-care clients with diabetes. Older adults with daily or multiple daily episodes of UI were compared with adults who were continent or had less than daily UI on sociodemographic, functional, psychosocial and clinical variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine correlates of UI in this population. RESULTS: Of 118,519 older adults with diabetes, 39,945 (33.7%) had daily or multiple daily episodes of UI. Correlates of UI included: impaired function in activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR], 5.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.14‒5.50), cognitive impairment (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 2.28‒2.47), female sex (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82‒1.93), multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.74‒1.93), presence of a distressed caregiver (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.27‒1.35), making economic trade-offs (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11‒1.34) and falls (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.26). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary incontinence is common among older adults with diabetes using home-care services. Targeted interventions are required to address the social, functional and clinical factors associated with UI in this population.