Central venous catheters are an important factor in paediatric thrombosis
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AIM: To establish the incidence and characteristics of paediatric thrombosis (PT) in a Canadian tertiary care centre during the era of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). METHODS: A retrospective observational case study of all patients <18 years of age evaluated for arterial and venous thrombosis from May 2008 to July 2018 at McMaster Children's Hospital was conducted through the electronic medical record. RESULTS: The incidence of PT was 52.2 per 10 000 hospital admissions (n = 477/91 462). Provoked thrombosis was more prevalent (88.9%, n = 424/477) than unprovoked (2.9%, n = 14/477) or idiopathic thrombosis (4%, n = 19/477). Half of PT were in children <2 years (51.2%, n = 244/477). Central vascular catheterisation was a contributory factor in more than half of thrombotic events (56.2%, n = 268/477), while trauma (1.1%, n = 5/477), oral contraceptives (4%, n = 19/477), infection (4%, n = 19/477), surgery (6.9%, n = 33/477) and malignancy (8.4%, n = 40/477) were also risk factors. Arterial ischaemic stroke was diagnosed in 11.1% of cases (n = 53/477), while pulmonary embolism was identified in 7.1% (n = 34/477) and 1.7% of cases were fatal (n = 8/477). LMWH was the first-line therapeutic of choice (47.8%, n = 228/477), with 28.1% (n = 134/477) requiring no intervention. CONCLUSION: These data reiterate the elevated thrombosis risk to which infants and children with central vascular access are exposed.
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