Prognosis for Gross Motor Function in Cerebral Palsy
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CONTEXT: Lack of a valid classification of severity of cerebral palsy and the absence of longitudinal data on which to base an opinion have made it difficult to consider prognostic issues accurately. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy by severity, using longitudinal observations, as a basis for prognostic counseling with parents and for planning clinical management. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of children with cerebral palsy, stratified by age and severity of motor function and observed serially for up to 4 years during the period from 1996 to 2001. SETTING: Nineteen publicly funded regional children's ambulatory rehabilitation programs in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 657 children aged 1 to 13 years at study onset, representing the full spectrum of clinical severity of motor impairment in children with cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severity of cerebral palsy, classified with the 5-level Gross Motor Function Classification System; function, formally assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). RESULTS: Based on a total of 2632 GMFM assessments, 5 distinct motor development curves were created; these describe important and significant differences in the rates and limits of gross motor development among children with cerebral palsy by severity. There is substantial within-stratum variation in gross motor development. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based prognostication about gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy is now possible, providing parents and clinicians with a means to plan interventions and to judge progress over time. Further work is needed to describe motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy.
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