Incremental value of natriuretic peptide measurement in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): a systematic review
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The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) independently add incremental value for predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medline(®), Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. From 183 citations, only seven studies (5 BNP and 2 NT-proBNP) considered incremental value in ADHF subjects admitted to acute care centers. Admission assay levels and length of follow-up varied for BNP studies (31 days to 12 months) and for NT-proBNP studies (25-82 months). All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that BNP or NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used reclassification and model validation computations to establish incremental value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. In conclusion, the literature assessing incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP in ADHF populations is limited to seven studies evaluating only mortality outcomes and at moderate risk of bias. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in BNP/NT-proBNP adding incremental value in prediction models in ADHF patients.