Even with recent progress, cancer remains the second leading cause of death, outlining a need to widen the current understanding on oncogenic factors. Accumulating evidence from recent years suggest Contactin 1 (CNTN1)’s possession of multiple oncogenic activities in a variety of cancer types. CNTN1 is a cell adhesion molecule that is dysregulated in many human carcinomas and plays important roles in cancer progression and metastases. Abnormalities in CNTN1 expression associate with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Mechanistically, CNTN1 functions in various signaling pathways frequently altered in cancer, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC)-VEGF receptor 3 (VEFGR3)/fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt4) axis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), Notch signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. These oncogenic events are resulted via interactions between tumor and stroma, which can be contributed by CNTN1, an adhesion protein. CNTN1 expression in breast cancer correlates with the expression of genes functioning in cancer-stroma interactions and skeletal system development. Evidence supports that CNTN1 promotes cancer-stromal interaction, resulting in activation of a complex network required for cancer progression and metastasis (bone metastasis for breast cancer). CNTN1 inhibitions has been proven to be effective in experimental models to reduce oncogenesis. In this paper, we will review CNTN1′s alterations in cancer, its main biochemical mechanisms and interactions with its relevant cancer pathways.