Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with numerous obstetrical, fetal, and developmental complications, as well as an increased risk of adverse health consequences in the adult offspring. Nicotine replacement therapy and electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes) have been developed as a pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and are considered safer alternatives for women to smoke during pregnancy. The safety of nicotine replacement therapy use during pregnancy has been evaluated in a limited number of short-term human trials, but there is currently no information on the long-term effects of developmental nicotine exposure in humans. However, animal studies suggest that nicotine alone may be a key chemical responsible for many of the long-term effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the offspring and increases the risk of adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, dysmetabolism, respiratory illness, and cancer. This review will examine the long-term effects of fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure on postnatal health.