Myokines and adipokines in sarcopenia: understanding cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the role of exercise
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Detrimental age-associated changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue increase the risk of sarcopenia. Age-related changes in myokines, such as myostatin and irisin, as well as adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, contribute to cross-talk between muscle and adipose tissue. These age-related changes in myokines and adipokines have important implications for sarcopenia, however, recent literature highlights discrepancies in these relationships. Exercise may alter serum profiles and muscle receptor expression of these factors, but future work is needed to determine whether these changes in myokines and adipokines relate to improvements in muscle mass and function. Here, we describe myokine-mediated and adipokine-mediated interactions between muscle and adipose tissue, and discuss the fundamental importance of these cytokines to understanding the development of sarcopenia.
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