Gene fusions characterize a subset of uterine cellular leiomyomas
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Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumor of the female genital tract. Previous studies have shown that conventional leiomyomas often harbor-specific alterations including rearrangements involving HMGA2. Cellular leiomyomas are a variant of uterine leiomyoma that are less well-studied from a genomic point of view. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, cellular leiomyomas may be confused with low-grade endometrial stromal neoplasms, a group of tumors which frequently harbor a number of recurrent gene fusions. Ancillary molecular testing may be used to investigate tumors where low-grade endometrial stromal neoplasms enter into the differential diagnosis. At our institution, we identified a uterine cellular leiomyoma harboring a HMGA2-TRAF3IP2 fusion. After a retrospective review 11 additional tumors were identified. All included cases were reviewed and evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, CD10, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. RNA sequencing using the TruSight RNA Fusion Panel was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In addition to the index case, two other cases harbored fusions: HMGA2-NAA11 and TPCN2-YAP1, of which the latter is novel and was confirmed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, a subset of cellular leiomyomas harbor rearrangements involving HMGA2, suggesting molecular kinship with conventional uterine leiomyomas. In addition, the prevalence of the novel TPCN2-YAP1 gene fusion in cellular leiomyomas requires further study. The fusions reported here, when identified, may be useful when the diagnosis of cellular leiomyoma is in question.