The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Functional Exercise Capacity and Physical Activity in People with COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of the relationships between self-efficacy and (i) functional exercise capacity and (ii) physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and whether self-efficacy assessment type (i.e., COPD symptoms, exercise-task, exercise-barrier, general, falls) and physical activity assessment type (i.e., self-report vs. objective) are moderators. A systematic search of COPD and self-efficacy concepts was conducted using eight databases from inception to 23 January 2019. Studies were included if they provided correlation coefficients of the relationship between self-efficacy and functional exercise capacity or physical activity, were conducted in adults diagnosed with COPD, and were published in English-language journals. A total of 14 correlation coefficients were included in the self-efficacy and functional exercise capacity meta-analysis, and 16 in the self-efficacy and physical activity meta-analysis. Data were screened, reviewed, and extracted independently by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer. Stronger self-efficacy was associated with better functional exercise capacity (weighted r = 0.38, 95%CI [0.25, 0.50]), and greater physical activity (weighted r = 0.25, 95%CI [0.17, 0.34]). Exercise-task self-efficacy had the strongest relationship to functional exercise capacity (weighted r = 0.64, 95% CI [0.51, 0.73]). For physical activity, the type of self-efficacy most strongly related was inconclusive. In COPD, self-efficacy has a relationship to functional exercise capacity and physical activity, the strength of which is influenced by the choice of self-efficacy measure. An understanding of these relationships will assist clinicians in selecting the self-efficacy measure most closely related to the outcome of interest.
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