Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis (CAPNON) is a rare tumor-like lesion with unclear pathogenesis. Collision lesions of CAPNONs with neoplasms are occasionally reported. In this article, we report the first case of collision lesions between CAPNON and rheumatoid nodules (RNs) in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient was a 51-year-old female who presented with lower back pain and subsequently a lower back mass over 2 years. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneous, partially calcified mass centered in the L3-4 paravertebral regions. A biopsy of the mass was diagnostic of CAPNON. As the mass grew over the following 5 months, it was resected en bloc. Its pathological examination revealed collision lesions of RNs at different histopathological stages and CAPNON lesions, and transitional lesions exhibiting combined RN and CAPNON features, with immune cell infiltrates. Our findings provide new evidence for an immune-mediated reactive process and insights into the pathogenies of CAPNON.