Co-occurrence between C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency and autoimmune disease: a systematic literature review
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Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is caused by a SERPING1 gene defect resulting in decreased (Type I) or dysfunctional (Type II) C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). The prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in patients with HAE appears to be higher than the general population. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the co-occurrence between HAE and ADs. Methods: PubMed/EMBASE were searched for English-language reviews, case reports, observational studies, retrospective studies, and randomized controlled trials up to 04/15/2018 (04/15/2015-04/15/2018 for EMBASE) that mentioned patients with HAE Type I or II and comorbid ADs. Non-human or in vitro studies and publications of C1-INH deficiency secondary to lymphoproliferative disorders or angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors were excluded. Results: Of the 2880 records screened, 76 met the eligibility criteria and 155 individual occurrences of co-occurring HAE and AD were mentioned. The most common ADs were systemic lupus erythematosus (30 mentions), thyroid disease (21 mentions), and glomerulonephritis (16 mentions). When ADs were grouped by MedDRA v21.0 High Level Terms, the most common were: Lupus Erythematosus and Associated Conditions, n = 52; Endocrine Autoimmune Disorders, n = 21; Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions, n = 16; Glomerulonephritis and Nephrotic Syndrome, n = 16; Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated Conditions, n = 11; Eye, Salivary Gland and Connective Tissue Disorders, n = 10; and Immune and Associated Conditions Not Elsewhere Classified, n = 5. Conclusions: Based on literature reports, systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common AD co-occurring with HAE Type I and II. Cause and effect for co-occurring HAE and AD has not been clinically established but could be related to lack of sufficient C1-INH function.
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