Phylogenetic analysis of the caliciviruses
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A phylogenetic portrait of the genus Calicivirus in the family Caliciviridae was developed based upon published sequences and newly characterized calicivirus (CV) strains, including additional Sapporo-like HuCV strains in pediatric diarrhea stool specimens from South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Distance and parsimony methods were applied to nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human and animal calicivirus 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (approximately 470nt) and capsid hypervariable regions (approximately 1,200nt) to generate phylogenetic trees. Pairwise amino acid identity in the 3D region among the Sapporo-like strains ranged from 61% to 100%. Human and animal caliciviruses (HuCVs and AnCVs) separated into five genogroups: small round-structured viruses (SRSV), Sapporo-like, and hepatitis E virus (HEV)-like HuCVs and rabbit-, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV)-like AnCVs, each with a distinct genome organization. Each genogroup, including the Sapporo-like HuCVs, subdivided further into subgenogroups. The capsid region trees had higher levels of confidence than the 3D region trees and limited conclusions about genogroups could be drawn from the 3D region analyses. This analysis suggested that CVs include five potential virus subfamilies.