<b><i>Objective:</i></b> To explore the knowledge and prevalence of menopausal symptoms as well as the use and attitude toward hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Chinese women. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2011 and April 2012 in Shanghai, China. The structured questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and prevalence of menopausal symptoms, and knowledge and attitude towards HRT and its use were investigated. <b><i>Results:</i></b> 3,619 women aged 40-65 years were included in the analysis. The majority of the women had knowledge of menopause. Symptoms were prevalent in 16.1% of premenopausal women and in 49.3% of peri-, post- and surgical-menopausal women. Back and joint pain, sleeplessness, fatigue and sweating/hot flushes were frequently reported. HRT awareness among women was 3.5% and was related to menopausal, working and marital status; 75 (2.1%) women had used or were using HRT, of which 57.3% used HRT with a doctor's prescription and 29.3% experienced side effects from the use of HRT. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Most Chinese women had knowledge of menopause and thought menopausal symptoms should not be treated. The awareness of HRT was poor and influenced by menopausal, working and marital status. Chinese health care providers have to assume responsibility for educating women about menopause and HRT use.