Oral apixaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the AMPLIFY trial
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BACKGROUND: The AMPLIFY trial compared apixaban with enoxaparin followed by warfarin for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE: To perform a subgroup analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of apixaban and enoxaparin followed by warfarin for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer enrolled in AMPLIFY. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with symptomatic VTE were randomized to a 6-month course of apixaban or enoxaparin followed by warfarin. The primary efficacy outcome and principal safety outcome were recurrent VTE or VTE-related death and major bleeding, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 5395 patients randomized, 169 (3.1%) had active cancer at baseline, and 365 (6.8%) had a history of cancer without active cancer at baseline. Among patients with active cancer, recurrent VTE occurred in 3.7% and 6.4% of evaluable patients in the apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin groups, respectively (relative risk [RR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-2.37); major bleeding occurred in 2.3% and 5.0% of evaluable patients, respectively (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.08-2.46). Among patients with a history of cancer, recurrent VTE occurred in 1.1% and 6.3% of evaluable patients in the apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin groups, respectively (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.78); major bleeding occurred in 0.5% and 2.8% of treated patients, respectively (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.02-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this subgroup analysis suggest that apixaban is a convenient option for cancer patients with VTE. However, additional studies are needed to confirm this concept and to compare apixaban with low molecular weight heparin in these patients.
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