Sex Disparities in the Choice of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device: An Analysis of Trends, Predictors, and Outcomes
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BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the influence of sex on the decision to implant a cardiac resynchronization therapy device with pacemaker (CRT-P) or defibrillator (CRT-D) and the existence of sex-dependent differences in complications that may affect this decision. METHODS: All patients undergoing de novo CRT implantation (2004-2014) in the United States National Inpatient Sample were included and stratified by device type (CRT-P and CRT-D). Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to assess the association of female sex with receipt of CRT-D and periprocedural complications. RESULTS: Out of 400,823 weighted CRT procedural records, the overall percentages of women undergoing CRT-P and CRT-D implantations were 41.5% and 27.8%, respectively, and these percentages increased compared with men over the study period. Women were less likely to receive CRT-D (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.64-0.67), and this trend remained stable throughout the study period (P = 0.06). Furthermore, compared with men, women were associated with increased odds of procedure-related complications (bleeding, thoracic, and cardiac) in the CRT-D group but not in the CRT-P group. Factors such as atrial fibrillation, malignancies, renal failure, advanced age (> 60 years), and admission to nonurban/small hospitals favoured the receipt of CRT-P over CRT-D, whereas history of ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest ,or ventricular arrhythmias favoured the receipt of CRT-D over CRT-P. CONCLUSIONS: Women were associated with persistently reduced odds of receipt of CRT-D compared with men over an 11-year period. This study identifies important factors that predict the choice of CRT device offered to patients in the United States.
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