Chronic resistance training induces increases in muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), otherwise known as hypertrophy. This is due to an increased volume percentage of myofibrillar proteins within a given fibre. The exact time-course for muscle fibre hypertrophy is not well-documented but appears to require at least 6-7 weeks of regular resistive training at reasonably high intensity before increases in fibre CSA are deemed significant. Proposed training-induced changes in neural drive are hypothesized to increase strength due to increased synchrony of motor unit firing, reduced antagonist muscle activity and/or a reduction in any bilateral strength deficit. Nonetheless, increases in muscle protein synthesis were observed following an isolated bout of resistance exercise. In addition, muscle balance was positive, following resistance exercise when amino acids were infused/ingested. This showed that protein accretion occurred during the postexercise period. The implications of this hypothesis for training-induced increases in strength are discussed. Key words: hypertrophy, muscle protein synthesis, muscle protein breakdown, myofibrillar protein, strength.