Fruit consumption and physical activity in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among 70,000 Chinese adults with pre-existing vascular disease
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations of fresh fruit consumption and total physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese adults who have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypertension. METHODS: During 2004-08, the China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 70,047 adults, aged 30-79 years, with physician-diagnosed stroke or transient ischaemic attack, ischemic heart disease, or hypertension. Information on diet and physical activity was collected using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire. Cox regression was used to yield hazard ratios (HRs) for the independent and joint associations of fresh fruit consumption and total physical activity with mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, 32.9% of participants consumed fresh fruit regularly (i.e. >3 days/week) and the mean total physical activity were 15.8 (SD = 11.8) MET-hr/day. During ~7-years follow-up, 6569 deaths occurred with 3563 from CVD. Compared to participants with <1 day/week fruit consumption, regular consumers had HR (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.79-0.89) for all-cause mortality and 0.79 (0.73-0.86) for CVD mortality. The HRs for the top vs bottom tertile of physical activity were 0.68 (0.64-0.72) and 0.65 (0.60-0.71), respectively, with no clear evidence of reverse causality. After correcting for regression dilution, each 100 g/day usual consumption of fresh fruit or 10 MET-hr/day usual levels of physical activity was associated with 23-29% lower mortality. The combination of regular fruit consumption with top 3rd of physical activity (>16.53 MET-hr/day) was associated with about 40% lower mortality. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese adults with pre-existing vascular disease, higher physical activity and fruit consumption were both independently and jointly associated with lower mortality.
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