Background: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is a bloodless, relatively painless alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Objective: We compare the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of Greenlight Laser PVP (HPS-120) and TURP.Methods: We conducted a prospective, non-randomized trial in 3 Ontario centres from March 2008 to February 2011. Assessments were completed at baseline, 1 and 6 months following surgery at the physicians’ offices and at 12 and 24 months by phone. The primary outcome was the change in International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) score at 6 months versus baseline. Secondary outcomes were changes in flow rate, postvoid residual (PVR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) scores. Adverse events, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), resource utilization and productivity losses were collected.Results: Although the IPSS decreased in both arms (n = 140 forPVP and n = 24 for TURP) between baseline and 6 months, the difference in change over time between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.718). Other outcomes improved equally from baseline and 6 months (Qmax, SHIM, PSA and HRQoL), with only changes in PVR favouring PVP (p = 0.018). There were no statistical differences in serious adverse events. In total, 130 of 140 PVP patients were outpatients, all TURP subjects were inpatients. PVP was less costly than TURP ($3891 vs. $4863; p < 0.001) with similar quality-adjusted life years (0.448 vs. 0.441; p = 0.658).Conclusion: Greenlight Laser PVP (HPS-120) is a safe and cost effective alternative to TURP for outpatient treatment of LUTS and can be completed as an outpatient with minimal blood loss.