Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used for the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). The controlled evidence for the efficacy of this treatment is limited. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of HBOT in reducing the need for major amputation and improving wound healing in patients with diabetes and chronic DFUs.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Patients with diabetes and foot lesions (Wagner grade 2–4) of at least 4 weeks' duration participated in this study. In addition to comprehensive wound care, participants were randomly assigned to receive 30 daily sessions of 90 min of HBOT (breathing oxygen at 244 kPa) or sham (breathing air at 125 kPa). Patients, physicians, and researchers were blinded to group assignment. At 12 weeks postrandomization, the primary outcome was freedom from meeting the criteria for amputation as assessed by a vascular surgeon. Secondary outcomes were measures of wound healing.
One hundred fifty-seven patients were assessed for eligibility, with 107 randomly assigned and 103 available for end point adjudication. Criteria for major amputation were met in 13 of 54 patients in the sham group and 11 of 49 in the HBOT group (odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.37, 2.28], P = 0.846). Twelve (22%) patients in the sham group and 10 (20%) in the HBOT group were healed (0.90 [0.35, 2.31], P = 0.823). All other indices of wound healing were also not statistically significantly different between groups.
HBOT does not offer an additional advantage to comprehensive wound care in reducing the indication for amputation or facilitating wound healing in patients with chronic DFUs.