Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous NSCLC patients and lead to constitutive activation of the ALK signalling pathway. ALK-positive NSCLC is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis.Targeted inhibition of the ALK pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population.Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted ALK inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation ALK inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation ALK inhibitors can be considered.