FACTORS INFLUENCING EARLY RENAL FUNCTION IN CADAVER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS
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We performed a multicenter study to investigate the problem of cadaver kidney transplants that never achieve function, or that recover after a period of delayed function, and we used multivariate techniques to model the results. Sixty-nine patients who received cadaver kidney transplants that never functioned (NF) were compared with 69 kidney recipients with early graft function (EF), and 69 with delayed but recovering graft function (DF), matched for transplant hospital and time. The results were analyzed using an unconditional logistic regression model. Risk factors for never-function transplants compared to immediate-function transplants were as follows: previous failed transplant, no polyclonal antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) prophylaxis, increasing anastomosis time, decreasing donor blood pressure, and prior transfusions in first but not subsequent transplant recipients. When technical failures were excluded, 88% of NF grafts displayed severe rejection, suggesting that rejection in a poorly functioning kidney is the principal cause of the NF outcome. Risk factors for delayed function compared to immediate function were these: increasing anastomosis time, no ALG, increasing total cold ischemia time, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and male sex. Thus ischemic and immunologic risk factors contributed to the DF and NF outcomes. This study suggests that efforts to reduce the delayed and never-function outcomes should be directed to the use of ALG prophylaxis and to the reduction of cold ischemia and anastomosis times, particularly in recipients who have lost a previous transplant.
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