- Temafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, was compared with other antibiotics. A review of the literature on the in-vitro activity of temafloxacin was also done. The susceptibility of Gram-positive cocci isolated from blood cultures was determined using a broth microdilution method. Temafloxacin MIC90s for Staphylococcus aureus (oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant) and Streptococcus pneumoniae were less than 0.12, less than 0.12 and 0.76 mg/L respectively. Temafloxacin was more active than either ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin against these organisms. A review of the literature supported these findings. Temafloxacin was the most active of the quinolones tested against a small number of S. pneumoniae with decreased sensitivity to penicillin. Temafloxacin activity was not appreciably affected by changes in pH or the presence of serum, but activity was slightly reduced in urine at pH 6.5-7.2, and at high magnesium ion concentrations. With the exception of S. pneumoniae at high concentration, no significant inoculum effect was observed.