This prospective. single open-label sludy was conducted in 14 Canadian centres to assess lhe efncacy of I g, once a day intravenous ceftriaxone treatment administered for a minimum of three days in patients with lower respiratory tract infection. There were 137 patients enrolled. Age varied between 19 and 95 years (mean 68 years). Mosl patients (91 %) were diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia without bacteremia. Most of the cases (82%) were defined as modcralc or severe. Patients received ceftriaxone treatment for an average or five days. Macrolidcs or metronidazole were administered concomitantly wilh ceftriaxone in 34 patienls (25%). After a minimum of three days of ceftriaxone treatment. 59 palicnls (43%) were switched to oral antibiotics. Favourable treatment outcome was found in 92.9% and treatment failure (including relapse of infection) in 7.1 % o lpalicnls. Evaluable patients accounted for 91 % of patients enrolled in the study. Clinical cure and clinical improvement were achieved in 64.6 and 28.3% of the evaluable patients. respectively. Relapse of infection occurred in two patients (1.8%). and treatment failure was recorded in six cases (5.3%). Twelve patients (8.8%) died clue to reasons unrelated to the sludy treatment. Three adverse event (hives, diarrhea and phlebitis at the injection site) were possibly related to the study drug. A cross-Canada in vitro susceptibility surveillance study of bacterial pathogens. frequently the cause of pneumonia. found ceftriaxone to have minimal inhibitory concentrations in 90% of isolates that would support such a dosing regimen. with the exception of Enterobacter species. These rcsults support the use of 1 g, once daily ceftriaxone for the empirical treatment of pneumonia in those patients requiring hospitalization.